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引用本文:杜美荣,方建光,毛玉泽,李锋,高亚平,房景辉,王同勇,蒋增杰.底栖硅藻生物膜附着基对扇贝幼虫附着和变态的影响.海洋与湖沼,2020,51(1):125-131.
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底栖硅藻生物膜附着基对扇贝幼虫附着和变态的影响
杜美荣,方建光,毛玉泽,李锋,高亚平,房景辉,王同勇,蒋增杰
1.农业部海洋渔业资源可持续利用重点开放实验室 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266000;3.威海市文登区水产技术推广站 威海 264400
摘要:
为了建立生态、高效的扇贝幼虫附着和变态诱导技术,采用底栖硅藻生物膜附着基对栉孔扇贝和海湾扇贝开展了附着和变态诱导的现场实验。实验围绕底栖硅藻在扇贝幼虫培育池内的数量变动、存活状态、在栉孔扇贝食谱组成中的贡献以及其对两种扇贝附着和变态的诱导效果开展。结果表明,底栖硅藻附着基能极显著提高海湾扇贝和栉孔扇贝幼虫的附苗量和变态率(P<0.01)。在海湾扇贝实验中,底栖硅藻处理组比对照组附苗量提高220.19%(P<0.01),变态率和壳长两组差异不显著(P>0.05)。在栉孔扇贝实验中,底栖硅藻处理组比对照组附苗量提高43.02%(P<0.01),变态率提高87.31%(P<0.01),底栖硅藻处理组壳长和对照组差异不显著(P>0.05)。对照组附着基比对照组早3d检查到变态的稚贝。底栖硅藻附着基在进入幼虫培育池的黑暗环境后光合作用受限,对于扇贝幼虫的日常管理导致底栖硅藻脱落,数量有一定的下降,但丰度最终能保持为56.0-183.9个/mm2。使用基于混合模型对栉孔扇贝稚贝食物来源进行分析结果显示金藻Isochrysis galbana对稚贝的食物贡献较高,底栖硅藻的贡献较低,其0.95水平的置信区间的贡献率为0%-44%,表明底栖硅藻也是扇贝物来源之一。本研究为底栖硅藻生物膜在贝类幼虫附着变态过程中作用的研究奠定了良好的基础,并为生态、高效的商业化苗种培育提供理论和技术支撑。
关键词:  底栖硅藻生物膜  扇贝  幼虫  附着  变态
DOI:10.11693/hyhz20190500101
分类号:S968.3;Q174
基金项目:科技部政府间国际科技创新合作重点专项,2017YFE0118300号;山东省支持青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室重大科技专项,2018SDKJ0502号;青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室渔业科技青年人才计划项目资助,2018-MFS-T13号;国家贝类产业技术体系养殖容量评估与管理岗位,CARS-49号;中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项,20603022016017号。
EFFECT OF BENTHIC DIATOM FILMED SUBSTRATE ON SETTLEMENT AND METAMORPHOSIS OF SCALLOP
DU Mei-Rong1,2,3,4, FANG Jian-Guang1,2,3,4, MAO Yu-Ze1,2,3,4, LI Feng1,2,3,4, GAO Ya-Ping1,2,3,4, FANG Jing-Hui1,2,3,4, WANG Tong-Yong5, JIANG Zeng-Jie1,2,3,4
1.Key Laboratory for Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture;2.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Resources and Eco-Environment;3.Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Science, Qingdao 266071, China;4.Function Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266000, China;5.Weihai Wendeng Fishery Technology Extension Station, Weihai 264400, China
Abstract:
To establish an ecologically and efficiently technique for settlement and metamorphosis induction of scallop, effects of benthic diatom filmed substrates on settlement and metamorphosis of Chlamys farreri and Argopecten irradians were studied in our experiments. The experiments focused on the quantity fluctuation of benthic diatoms in scallop larval nursery pool, the status and contributions of the benthic diatoms to the dietary composition of C. farreri, and their induction effects on the settlement and metamorphosis of two scallops. The results show that the benthic diatom filmed substrate significantly increased the settlement and metamorphosis rate of scallop larvae (P<0.01). The number of settled larvae on the benthic diatom filmed substrate increased by 220.19% in Argopecten irradians experiment (P<0.01) compared with the control group. However, there was no significant difference in the metamorphosis rate and shell length between the two groups (P>0.05). The number of settled larvae on the benthic diatom filmed substrate increased by 43.02% and the metamorphosis rate increased by 87.31% (P<0.01) compared to the control group in C. farreri experiment (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in shell length between benthic diatom filmed substrate and the control (P<0.05). The larvae finished metamorphosis on the benthic diatom filmed substrates 3 days earlier than that of the control. The photosynthesis of benthic diatom was limited when it entered a dark environment of larval nursery pool. The number of the benthic diatom decreased because of the daily management of the larvae. However, the abundance of benthic diatom attachment could eventually be maintained at 56.0-183.9/mm2. The results of food source analysis of C. farreri juveniles in the mixed model showed that the contribution of Isochrysis galbana to the food of juveniles was the highest. The third was the benthic diatom. The contribution rate of benthic diatom at 0.95 level was 0-44%, indicating that benthic diatom was also one of the food sources of scallops. This study provided theoretical and technical supports for ecological and efficient commercial seedling production.
Key words:  benthic diatom film  scallop  larvae  settlement  metamorphosis
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