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基于生态通道模型的长江口及邻近海域生态系统能流动态分析
王远超1,2, 梁 翠1,2, 线薇微1,3,2, 张效嘉1
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室;3.中国科学院大学
摘要:
本文根据2004年长江口及其邻近海域生态调查数据, 运用生态通道模型(Ecopath模型)构建生态系统能流网络, 分析本区域生态系统营养结构及功能, 并与1985—1986年研究数据进行对比, 解析两个时期生态系统营养结构与功能的差异。研究结果显示, 2004年长江口及其邻近海域生态系统营养级范围为1~4.34, 相较于1985—1986年研究结果, 底层脊椎动物食性鱼类和头足类的营养级变动较大。牧食食物链占据主导地位, 浮游植物在浮游动物和水母的能量来源中所占比例均在60%以上; 碎屑食物链所占能流比为44%。系统总能流为6342.081 t·km-2·a-1。渔获物平均营养级下降, 生态营养效率平均值较高, 但是碎屑和浮游植物的生态营养效率却明显下降, 碎屑趋于累积。生态系统统计量整体显示, 长江口及邻近海域生态系统成熟度降低。
关键词:  长江口  生态通道模型  能流网络  生态系统成熟度  动态分析
DOI:10.11759/hykx20170816001
分类号:
基金项目:国家基金委-山东省联合项目(U1606404); 国家自然科学基金面上项目(31272663, 41176138); 国务院三峡工程建设委员会资助项目(JJ 2015-011)
Ecopath based dynamic analyses of energy flows of Yangtze estuary and its adjacent waters
WANG Yuan-chao,LIANG Cui,XIAN Wei-wei,ZHANG Xiao-jia
Abstract:
Based on the data of the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and its adjacent waters in 2004, this manuscript analyzed energy flow characteristics and constructed the energy flow network of the ecosystem in this region by using Ecopath model. Based on the data from 1985 to 1986, the effects of external disturbance on the structure and function of the YRE ecosystem were analyzed. The results showed that the trophic level of ecosystem in the YRE and its adjacent waters was between 1 and 4.34. The bottom invertebrate feeding fish and cephalopods experienced a significant change compared with that of 20 years ago. The average trophic level of the catch decreased, indicating that fishery resources underwent intensified fishing pressure, and there was a sign of fishery resources recession. The mean value of ecological efficiencies (EE) was high, while the EE of debris and phytoplankton decreased remarkably, which implied that debris tended to accumulate. The overall ecosystem statistics showed that the ecosystem maturity in the YRE and its adjacent waters has reduced.
Key words:  Yangtze Estuary  ecopath  network analysis of energy flows  ecosystem maturity  dynamic analysis
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