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引用本文:王金宝,李新正,王洪法,徐勇.山东长岛潮间带大型底栖动物生态特征研究[J].海洋科学,2018,42(10):41-52.
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山东长岛潮间带大型底栖动物生态特征研究
王金宝1,2,3, 李新正1,2,3,4, 王洪法1,2, 徐勇1,2,3
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 海洋生物分类与系统演化实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;2.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心, 山东 青岛 266071;3.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋生物与生物技术功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266237;4.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
2015年11月(秋季)、2016年2月(冬季)、2016年6月(春季)、2016年9月(夏季)大潮期间对山东长岛列岛中南长山岛和北长山岛的3个不同底质类型的潮间带采样点进行了系统的大型底栖动物调查,研究了其数量特征和季节变化,包括群落种类组成、密度和生物量、优势种、物种多样性等,结果表明:本次调查共鉴定出大型底栖动物隶属7个门,共81种。其中环节动物门多毛类动物25种,软体动物门25种,节肢动物门22种,棘皮动物门6种,其他类群共3种(包括纽虫、腔肠动物和鱼类各1种)。潮间带大型底栖动物平均密度为118.97 ind./m2,软体动物和甲壳动物占据了研究区域底栖群落的密度主要成分,两者分别占比为39.58%和36.68%。各采样点平均密度为北长山岛(BCS)(141.17 ind./m2) > 避险角(NCS1)(122.33 ind./m2) > 明珠广场东(NCS2)(93.42 ind./m2);各采样点平均生物量为128.03 g/m2,软体动物和甲壳动物占据了研究区域底栖群落的生物量主要成分,两者分别占比为58.56%和35.32%。平均生物量北长山岛(BCS)(234.95 g/m2) > 避险角(NCS1)(99.99 g/m2) > 明珠广场东(NCS2)(49.13 g/m2)。从季节来看,各站点的物种数、平均密度和生物量季节变化的规律性不明显,总体为秋、春季较多,夏、冬季较少。3个站点物种多样性指数(H')、丰富度指数(D)和均匀度指数(J')平均值分别为2.30、1.99和0.79,各潮区中,均为中潮带>低潮带>高潮带,各季节变化不明显。优势种受底质类型和季节变化的影响明显,没有在各站点和季节均为优势种的种类,主要的优势种有平背蜞(Gaetice depressus)、绒螯近方蟹(Hemigrapsus penicillatus)、短滨螺(Littorina brevicula)等。与以往历史资料相比,长岛潮间带生物出现了一定变化,种类和数量减少,与烟台近岸潮间带大型底栖动物种类组成差别很大。
关键词:  大型底栖动物  物种多样性  生态特征  潮间带  山东长岛
DOI:10.11759/hykx20180803002
分类号:P717
基金项目:海洋公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201505004-1);国家自然科学基金项目(31872194)
Macrobenthic ecology in the interridal zones of Changdao Islands in Shandong Province
WANG Jin-bao1,2,3, LI Xin-zheng1,2,3,4, WANG Hong-fa1,2, XU Yong1,2,3
1.Department of Marine Organism Taxonomy and Phylogeny, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;3.Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China;4.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
Macrobenthic samples were collected from three intertidal zones of Changdao Islands during November 2015 and February, June and September 2016, representing autumn, winter, spring, and summer, respectively. The species composition, abundance, biomass, dominant species, and biodiversity of macrobenthic community were analyzed. A total of 81 macrobenthic species were identified, consisting of 25 species of Polychaeta, 22 species of Crustacea, 25 species of Mollusca, 6 species of Echinodermata, and 3 species of other groups. The average abundance in the three intertidal zones was 118.97 ind./m2, and Mollusca (39.58% of the total abundance) and Crustacea (36.68%) were the primary contributors to the total abundance. An abundance ranking of Beichangshan Island (BCS, 141.17 ind./m2) > Bixianjiao (NCS1, 122.33 ind./m2) > Mingzhu Square (NCS2, 93.42 ind./m2) was detected among the three intertidal zones. The average biomass was 128.03 g/m2, with Mollusca (58.56%) and Crustacea (35.32%) being the primary contributors to the total biomass. The seasonal variations of macrobenthic species number, abundance and biomass were not obvious among the three intertidal zones. In general, the abundance and biomass in autumn and spring were higher than those in winter and summer. The mean values of diversity index, richness index and evenness index were 2.30, 1.99 and 0.79, respectively. A ranking of middle intertidal zone > low intertidal zone > high intertidal zone was detected for the three indices. A total of 16 dominant species were identified in the three intertidal zones, however, none of these species dominated in every sampling site or season. Gaetice depressus, Hemigrapsus penicillatus, and Littorina brevicula were the major dominant species. Compared with previous research, the species number and abundance of macrobenthos had decreased to some extent in the intertidal zones of Changdao Islands. The species composition and the community structure of the intertidal macrobenthos in Changdao Islands were different from those in Yantai. The species number and the average abundance were less than those in Yantai, whereas the biomass was higher than that in Yantai.
Key words:  macrobenthos  biodiversity  ecological characteristics  intertidal zones  Changdao Islands
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