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引用本文:沈萍萍,齐雨藻,欧林坚.中国沿海球形棕囊藻(Phaeocystis globosa)的分类、分布及其藻华[J].海洋科学,2018,42(10):146-162.
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中国沿海球形棕囊藻(Phaeocystis globosa)的分类、分布及其藻华
沈萍萍1, 齐雨藻2,3, 欧林坚2,3
1.中国科学院南海海洋研究所中国科学院热带海洋生物资源与生态重点实验室, 广东 广州 510301;2.暨南大学赤潮与海洋生物学研究中心, 广东 广州 510632;3.水体富营养化与赤潮防治广东普通高校重点实验室, 广东 广州 510632
摘要:
球形棕囊藻(Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel)是全球海洋广泛分布的有害藻华种类。1997年10月,中国东南沿海首次暴发了此种藻类的大规模藻华,其后陆续在福建、广东、广西、海南、河北及天津等省市沿海暴发多起同种藻华。中国近海的球形棕囊藻藻华呈现两大独有的特点,即藻类囊体较大(可达3厘米),以及藻华可毒害养殖业。历经20多年,球形棕囊藻在中国沿海已从一个“藻华新记录种”变成了“藻华常见种”。值得注意的是,2014年以来,广西北部湾海域棕囊藻藻华肆虐,威胁核电冷源安全,受到了社会高度关注,也对球形棕囊藻藻华的研究提出了新的挑战与要求。针对这一生态灾害的最新发展趋势,本文总结了20年来中国球形棕囊藻及其藻华灾害的发生与发展状况,分别就棕囊藻的分类、生活史特征、营养特性、藻华形成的环境驱动因素、生态毒理等诸多方面开展简要综述,冀望为棕囊藻藻华的研究及防治提供基础资料及思路。
关键词:  中国沿海  球形棕囊藻  分类  分布  生态  藻华
DOI:10.11759/hykx20171225004
分类号:Q948.8
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFC1404301,2015CB452903);广东省自然科学基金(2014A030313778);国家自然科学基金(U1301235);国家海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室开放基金(LMEES201803)
Phaeocystis globosa in coastal China: taxonomy, distribution, and its blooms
SHEN Ping-ping1, QI Yu-zao2,3, OU Lin-jian2,3
1.Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510301, China;2.Research Center for Harmful Algae and Marine Biology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China;3.Key Laboratory of Aquatic Eutrophication and Control of Harmful Algal Blooms of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, Guangzhou 510632, China
Abstract:
Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel is a harmful algal blooms (HAB) species that distributes worldwide. A massive P. globosa bloom was first recorded in the southeast coast of China in October, 1997. Since then, P. globosa blooms have expanded to the coasts of China, e.g., Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan Island, Hebei and Tianjin. The P. globosa blooms in China have two unique characteristics:the colony size can be as large as 3 cm and the blooms often caused substantial economic losses in fisheries. Therefore, P. globosa has changed greatly from a new-recorded HAB species to a common HAB species in the past decades. It is worth noting that large scale P. globosa blooms have occurred frequently in waters of the North Bay in Guangxi Province and severely threatened the cooling system safety of nuclear power stations since 2014. Thus, new challenges have been put forward to the research of P. globosa blooms. This article summarizes the relevant studies of P. globosa blooms in China in the past 20 years, dealing with the aspects of taxonomy, characteristics of life history and nutrient strategies, bloom driving factors as well as ecotoxicology etc, thus provides some fundamental information and new ideas for the research and control of this unique organism.
Key words:  China coasts  Phaeocystis globosa  taxonomy  distribution  ecology  bloom
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