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引用本文:皮永蕊,唐永政,王爱敏,吕永红,刘红梅,高丽.化学消油剂对原油乳化及微生物降解的影响[J].海洋科学,2019,43(3):19-26.
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化学消油剂对原油乳化及微生物降解的影响
皮永蕊, 唐永政, 王爱敏, 吕永红, 刘红梅, 高丽
烟台大学 海洋学院, 山东 烟台 264005
摘要:
5%时,正十四烷及原油的乳化指数较高。在消油剂与原油用量比为一定值时,原油的乳化效果与海水的量几乎没有关系。环境pH对GM-8乳化原油的影响不大,乳化后的原油可以在海洋环境中稳定7d以上。GM-8对原油的微生物降解有一定的增强作用。N/P、环境的pH以及微生物的接种量等均对乳化原油的生物降解有较大的影响。当微生物的接种量由培养基的1%增加到10%时,乳化原油的微生物降解率增加了一倍以上,达到91.6%。
关键词:  化学消油剂  原油  正十四烷  乳化  微生物降解
DOI:10.11759/hykx20181107003
分类号:X55
基金项目:山东省自然科学基金(ZR2018MD018);烟台大学博士科研启动资金(HX2018B32)
Effect of Chemical Dispersant on the Emulsification and Microbial Degradation of Crude Oil
PI Yong-Rui, TANG Yong-Zheng, WANG Ai-Min, LV Yong-Hong, LIU Hong-Mei, GAO Li
School of Ocean, Yantai University, Yantai, 264005, China
Abstract:
Dispersants are commonly used in emergency response to marine oil spills for promoting the dissolution of oil into water and reduce the transport of hydrocarbon to shoreline ecosystems. Herein, the emulsification effect of n-tetradecane and crude oil was analyzed from viewpoints of Guangming chemical dispersant GM-8 dosage, oil-water ratio, and environmental pH. Results showed that GM-8 has excellent emulsification capability on crude oil. When the amount of GM-8 is 5% of crude oil, the emulsification index of crude oil is high. When the amount of GM-8 and crude oil reaches a certain value, the emulsification index exhibits a negligible effect on the amount of seawater. The emulsified crude oil is almost unaffected by environmental pH and forms a stable emulsion in seawater. GM-8 enhances the microbial degradation of emulsified crude oil. Both N/P, i.e., the environmental pH, and inoculation quantity of the microorganisms have a significant influence on the biodegradation of emulsified crude oil. The biodegradation removal percentage of emulsified crude oil was doubled, peaking at 91.6%, when the microbial inoculum increased from 1% to 10% of the medium volume.
Key words:  chemical dispersant  n-tetradecane  crude oil  emulsification  biodegradation
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