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引用本文:潘家琳,袁琳,袁晓,薄顺奇,赵志远,朱晓泾,陈雅慧,李阳,张晋磊.海岸圈围对雁鸭类种群及生境的影响研究——以长江口横沙东滩为例[J].海洋科学,2019,43(5):45-56.
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海岸圈围对雁鸭类种群及生境的影响研究——以长江口横沙东滩为例
潘家琳1, 袁琳1, 袁晓2, 薄顺奇2, 赵志远1, 朱晓泾1, 陈雅慧1, 李阳1, 张晋磊1
1.华东师范大学, 河口海岸学国家重点实验室, 崇明生态研究院, 上海 200241;2.上海市野生动物植物保护管理站, 上海 200033
摘要:
滨海湿地是雁鸭类的重要栖息地,然而高强度的海岸圈围工程对滨海湿地生态系统和鸟类栖息地造成了显著影响,因此分析和研究海岸圈围对雁鸭类种群及栖息地的影响,对水鸟保护和滨海湿地资源可持续利用具有重要的理论和实践意义。位于长江口的横沙东滩,于2003年启动了海岸圈围促淤工程,工程的实施导致湿地生境和水鸟种群都发生着快速变化。本研究分别对2013、2015、2016和2017年,横沙东滩雁鸭类种群和生境因子的时空变化进行了调查与分析,通过拟合回归分析了两者的相关关系,探讨海岸圈围后生境的快速变化对雁鸭类种群产生的影响,从而提出海岸带圈围后水鸟栖息地的保护与管理对策。结果表明:1)海岸圈围工程的实施显著改变了滨海湿地的水鸟生境及种群特征。随着工程的推进,自然潮滩的盐沼湿地呈动态变化趋势;促淤区则随着泥沙的补给,新生了大面积的沼泽湿地;成陆区逐渐向淡水生态系统演替。伴随着生境的变化,雁鸭类种群逐渐从成陆区和自然潮滩向促淤区转移。2)不同生境类型影响雁鸭类种群数量特征的生境因子不同。未实施圈围的自然潮滩影响雁鸭类数量的主要因素是海三棱藨草/藨草群落面积;正在实施圈围的促淤区的主要影响因素是挺水植物面积、植被归一化指数(NDVI)和无植被覆盖水域面积;已圈围的成陆区主要影响因素为沉水植物面积。综上,雁鸭类偏向选择具有开阔水域、充足食物供给和相对较低植被盖度的生境类型。对于海岸圈围区域,若能合理利用圈围土地,保留部分区域为湿地,并根据水鸟的生境需求,适当营造水鸟适宜的栖息地,可在一定程度上减缓圈围工程对水鸟的影响,实现滨海湿地水鸟栖息地保护和湿地资源可持续利用的动态平衡。
关键词:  海岸圈围  滨海湿地  雁鸭类  生境  横沙东滩
DOI:10.11759/hykx20190219002
分类号:Q958.11
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(41876093),上海市科委科研计划项目(17DZ1201902;18DZ1206506;18DZ1204802),上海市绿化局科研专项(G161509)
Effects of coastal reclamation on the population and habitat of Anatidae birds: A case study of East Hengsha Shoal, Shanghai
PAN Jia-lin1, YUAN Lin1, YUAN Xiao2, Bo Shun-qi2, ZHAO Zhi-yuan1, ZHU Xiao-jing1, CHEN Ya-hui1, LI Yang1, ZHANG Jin-lei1
1.State key laboratory of estuarine and coastal science, Institute of Eco-Chongming, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China;2.Shanghai wildlife and plant protection administration station, Shanghai 200233, China
Abstract:
Coastal wetlands are an important habitat for Anatidae birds. However, high-intensity coastal reclamation has seriously affected the coastal wetland ecosystem and waterbirds habitats. Therefore, analysis of the impacts of coastal reclamation on the population and habitat of Anatidae birds has important theoretical and practical significance for the protection of waterbirds and the sustainable utilization of coastal wetland resources. In 2003, coastal reclamation engineering was carried out in the East Hengsha Shoal, Shanghai. It led to rapid changes in the habitat and the population of Anatidae birds. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of habitat and population of Anatidae birds during the winter migration periods in 2013, 2015, 2016, and 2017. To explore the effects of habitat succession on the Anatidae bird population, the correlations between the number of Anatidae and habitat factors were obtained by fitting regression analysis. The results showed that:(1) The coastal reclamation significantly changed the population and habitat of Anatidae. With the implementation of engineering, saltmarshes showed a dynamic trend in the natural tidal flat; large areas of marsh development with replenishment of sediment in the deposit-promoting region; gradual succession of the land-forming region into freshwater ecosystems. In addition, with the changes in habitat, Anatidae birds gradually transferred from the land-forming region and natural tidal flat to the deposit-promoting region. (2) Different types of habitats have different factors that influence Anatidae populations. The area of Scripus mariqueter/Scirpus triqueter was the main factor in the natural tidal flat; the area of emergent plants, NDVI index, and unvegetated water area were the main factors in the deposit- promoting region. The area of submerged plants was the main factor in the land-forming region. In general, Anatidae birds prefer a type of habitat with open waters, adequate food supply, and relatively low vegetative coverage. For the coastal reclaimed zone, preserving parts of wetland and creating a suitable bird habitat could reduce the negative effects on waterbirds to some extent. It could also achieve the dynamic balance of waterbird habitat protection and sustainable use of wetland resources in coastal zones.
Key words:  coastal reclamation project  coastal wetland  Anatidae bird  habitat  East Hengsha Shoal
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