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引用本文:王威,李莉,黎奥,王冲,孙同秋,张国范.近江牡蛎(Crassostrea ariakensis)规模化人工育苗及养成[J].海洋科学,2020,44(2):108-112.
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近江牡蛎(Crassostrea ariakensis)规模化人工育苗及养成
王威1,2,3, 李莉1,2,3, 黎奥1,2,3, 王冲4, 孙同秋4, 张国范1,5,3
1.中国科学院海洋研究所中国科学院实验海洋生物学重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业可续与食物产出过程功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266237;3.海洋生态养殖技术国家地方联合工程实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;4.滨州市海洋与渔业研究所, 山东 滨州 256600;5.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋海洋生物学与生物技术功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266237
摘要:
近江牡蛎(Crassostrea ariakensis)为广温、广盐分布的河口区大型种,曾在中国南北方河口区都有分布。由于近岸河口环境的变化,在中国北方河口区一度难以寻觅,甚至被认为濒临灭绝。利用黄河三角洲区域滨州、东营主要河口近江牡蛎资源,借助南方丰富的淡水资源,在福建宁德迅速开展了近江牡蛎的规模化人工育苗工作,总计获得了1 092万粒种苗。在近江牡蛎原产地滨州进行中间培养及海上养成,在长牡蛎主养海区山东乳山进行转场育肥试养并获得初步成功。与同期养殖的长牡蛎相比,近江牡蛎的氨基酸种类及含量无明显差异,且生长速度快,这些特点将有助于推动其成为我国北方沿海的牡蛎养殖新品种。规模化育苗及养殖还有助于降低对野生近江牡蛎资源的采捕需求,对其资源的保护、牡蛎礁的恢复重构能够起到促进作用。
关键词:  近江牡蛎(Crassostrea ariakensis)  人工育苗  规模化  养成  牡蛎礁
DOI:10.11759/hykx20190711003
分类号:S917.4
基金项目:中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)(XDA23050402),国家贝类产业技术体系(CARS-49)
Large-scale artificial reproduction and cultivation of the Jinjiang Oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis
WANG Wei1,2,3, LI Li1,2,3, LI Ao1,2,3, WANG Chong4, SUN Tong-qiu4, ZHANG Guo-fan1,5,3
1.CAS Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China;3.National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory of Ecological Mariculture, Qingdao 266071, China;4.Binzhou Ocean and Fisheries Research Institute, Binzhou 256600, China;5.Laboratory for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China
Abstract:
The Jinjiang oyster (Crassostrea ariakensis) is commonly found in rivers and estuaries with relatively low salinities ranging between 10 and 25 ppt. The Jinjiang oyster was also widely distributed in China, ranging from Lizijiang (Oyster River) on the border with Korea to Beihai of Guangxi Province and even in Hainan Province. However, due to overfishing combined with other anthropogenic factors such as decreased freshwater inflows and pollution from land-based sources, there has been a dramatic loss of wild Jinjiang oyster resources in China over the past few decades. The situation is even worse in northern China, and the Jinjiang oyster is endangered in several rivers and estuaries. Large-scale artificial reproduction of Jinjiang oysters was conducted by using the Jinjiang oyster resources in Binzhou and Dongying of the Yellow River delta region in the summer of 2017, which resulted in a total of 10.92 million seedlings. The spats and juveniles were cultured in Binzhou, the origin of the Jinjiang oyster till November 2018, and a fattening experiment was conducted in Rushan, the major sea area where C. gigas was raised. The success of large-scale artificial reproduction and cultivation of the Jinjiang oyster in the northern China Sea will promote resource protection and restoration of this species, and it is also critical to the development of new varieties so that it could emerge as a major aquaculture species in the northern China Sea.
Key words:  Crassostrea ariakensis  artificial breeding  scale production  cultivation  oyster reef
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