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引用本文:张雪,王俊,高燕,王宏,马武,刘克奉,陈卫.2014年春季渤海浮游植物群落结构[J].海洋科学,2020,44(6):45-55.
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2014年春季渤海浮游植物群落结构
张雪1,2, 王俊3, 高燕1,2, 王宏1,2, 马武4, 刘克奉1,2, 陈卫1,2
1.天津市水产研究所, 天津 300457;2.天津市海洋牧场技术工程中心, 天津 300457;3.中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所, 山东 青岛 266071;4.南京农业大学, 江苏 南京 210095
摘要:
基于2014年春季在渤海进行的水文、化学和生物方面的综合大面调查,研究了渤海浮游植物群落的结构特征,并结合文献资料,分析影响浮游植物群落结构形成的原因。结果显示:2014年渤海春季共鉴定浮游植物3门29属50种,以硅藻为主,还有少数甲藻和金藻。其中,硅藻门中圆筛藻属的种类最多,共12种,其次为角毛藻属,共5种。浮游植物总细胞丰度介于1.08×104~181.09×104个/m3,平均为25.47×104个/m3。硅藻与甲藻细胞丰度比值为12:1,硅藻在物种数量和细胞丰度上均占有绝对优势,为渤海浮游植物的主要类群。浮游植物优势种主要为密联角毛藻(Chaetoceros densus)、斯氏几内亚藻(Guinardia striata)、具槽帕拉藻(Paralia sulcata)和夜光藻(Noctiluca scintillans)。渤海春季浮游植物群落多样性水平较低,且分布不均。渤海中部和渤海海峡海域由于单一优势种过量繁殖导致群落稳定性较差。与历史同期资料对比,渤海海域浮游植物群落出现明显的物种演替现象,角毛藻的优势地位显著性下降,斯氏几内亚藻首次在渤海大面调查中被记录为优势种。本研究为今后渤海环境生态系统和渔业资源变动的研究提供重要基础资料和参考依据。
关键词:  渤海  春季  浮游植物  群落结构  赤潮
DOI:10.11759/hykx20190729001
分类号:S932
基金项目:中海油公益基金
Phytoplankton community structure in the Bohai Sea in the spring of 2014
ZHANG Xue1,2, WANG Jun3, GAO Yan1,2, WANG Hong1,2, MA Wu4, LIU Ke-feng1,2, CHEN Wei1,2
1.Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute, Tianjin 300457, China;2.Tianjin Marine Ranching Technical Engineering Center, Tianjin 300457, China;3.Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;4.Nanjing Agriculture University, Nanjing 210095, China
Abstract:
A comprehensive survey of the hydrology, chemistry, and biology of the Bohai Sea was carried out in the spring of 2014, and the structural characteristics of the phytoplankton community in this sea were studied. Historical data were also combined to analyze the formation of the phytoplankton community structure. The survey indicated that, in 2014, a total of 50 phytoplankton species belonging to 29 genera and 3 phylum could be found in the Bohai Sea. The dominant phylum was Bacillariophyta, and several species belonging to Pyrrophyta and Chrysophyta were noted. In Bacillariophyta, species belonging to Coscinodiscus (12) were dominant, followed by those belonging to Chaetoceros (5). The cell abundance of the phytoplankton in spring ranged from 1.08×104 cells/m3 to 181.09×104 cells/m3, with an average of 25.47×104 cells/m3, and the ratio of Bacillariophyta to Pyrrophyta was 12:1. Bacillariophyta showed an absolute advantage in terms of number of species and cell abundance and formed the main group of phytoplankton in the Bohai Sea. The dominant species of phytoplankton included Chaetoceros densus, Guinardia striata, Paralia sulcata, and Noctiluca scintillans. The diversity of the phytoplankton community in spring was low and unevenly distributed. The stability of the phytoplankton community in the central Bohai Sea and Bohai Strait was poor due to the overproduction of a single dominant species. Compared with the historical data, the survey results of the phytoplankton community in the Bohai Sea indicated obvious species succession, and the dominance of Chaetoceros remarkably decreased. Interestingly, G. striata was recorded as the dominant species in the Bohai Sea for the first time. This article provides important basic data and a reference for future research on changes in the Bohai Sea environmental ecosystem and fishery resources.
Key words:  the Bohai Sea  spring  phytoplankton  community structure  red tide
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