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引用本文:曾志刚,陈祖兴,张玉祥,杨娅敏,李晓辉,齐海燕.海底热液活动的环境与产物[J].海洋科学,2020,44(7):143-155.
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海底热液活动的环境与产物
曾志刚1,2,3,4,5, 陈祖兴1,2,5, 张玉祥1,2,5, 杨娅敏1,2,4, 李晓辉1,2,5, 齐海燕1,2,3
1.中国科学院海洋研究所, 山东 青岛 266071;2.中国科学院海洋地质与环境重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;3.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋矿产资源评价与探测技术功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266061;4.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;5.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心, 山东 青岛 266071
摘要:
近23年的调查研究,使我们认识到分布于洋中脊、弧后盆地、岛弧和热点等环境的海底热液活动发育在多种围岩类型之上,包括超基性岩石、基性岩石、中性岩石、酸性岩石和沉积物。海底热液活动经历了岩浆去气作用、流体-岩石/沉积物相互作用和流体-海水混合,获取了岩浆、岩石、海水和沉积物的物质,构成了热液循环,产生了高温、低氧、高或低pH值、富含Fe、Mn、Cu、Zn、Pb、Hg、As等元素以及气体组分(甲烷、氢等)的喷口流体,影响了海水、沉积、岩石和生物环境,形成了热液柱、硫化物、含金属沉积物和蚀变岩石等热液产物,组成了海底热液系统。未来,促进海底热液活动探测技术和热液产物测试方法的发展,对海底热液区的岩石、喷口流体、热液柱、硫化物、含金属沉积物以及热液循环、生物活动的持续观测与研究,无疑将为人类探知海底地质过程及生命活动、保护海底热液环境和合理开发利用海底资源提供有力的工作支撑。
关键词:  热液环境  热液产物  喷口流体  物质循环
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200316001
分类号:P736.4
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(91958213);全球变化与海气相互作用专项(GASI-GEOGE-02);中国科学院国际合作局对外合作重点项目(133137KYSB20170003);大洋“十三五”深海资源潜力评估项目(DY135-G2-1-02);泰山学者工程专项(ts201511061);国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)项目(2013CB429700)
Seafloor hydrothermal activities and their geological environments and products
ZENG Zhi-gang1,2,3,4,5, CHEN Zu-xing1,2,5, ZHANG Yu-xiang1,2,5, YANG Ya-min1,2,4, LI Xiao-hui1,2,5, QI Hai-yan1,2,3
1.Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;3.Laboratory for Marine Mineral Resources, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266071, China;4.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;5.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
In the past 23 years, we have realized that the seafloor hydrothermal activities mainly distributed in the mid-ocean ridge, back-arc basin island arc and hot-spot environments, with various types of host rocks, including ultramafic, mafic, felsic rocks, and sediments. The hydrothermal activity has experienced magmatic degassing, fluid-rock and/or sediment interaction and fluid-seawater mixing, obtaining materials from magma, rock, seawater and sediment, forming hydrothermal circulation, producing vent fluid with high temperature, low oxygen, high or low pH value, high Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Hg, As concentrations, gases (methane, hydrogen), and other components, affecting the seawater, sediment, rock and biological environment, building the submarine hydrothermal system, and at the same time, hydrothermal products such as hydrothermal plume, sulfide and sulfate, metalliferous sediments and altered rocks were formed in the seafloor hydrothermal fields. In the future, the development of hydrothermal detection equipment and hydrothermal product analytical techniques, and the continuous observation of hydrothermal alteration rocks, vent fluids, hydrothermal plumes, sulfide and sulfate chimneys, metalliferous sediments, hydrothermal circulation and biological activities in the seafloor hydrothermal vent fields will undoubtedly provide work support for human beings to understand the subseafloor geological process and life activities, and protect the seafloor hydrothermal environment.
Key words:  hydrothermal environment  hydrothermal products  vent fluid  element circulation
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