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引用本文:姜明玉,胡艺豪,于心科,曹文瑞,萨仁高娃,常凤鸣.大洋铁锰结核的微生物成矿过程及其研究进展[J].海洋科学,2020,44(7):156-164.
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大洋铁锰结核的微生物成矿过程及其研究进展
姜明玉1,2, 胡艺豪1,2,3, 于心科1,2, 曹文瑞1,2, 萨仁高娃1,2, 常凤鸣1,2
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 海洋地质与环境重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;2.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心, 山东 青岛 266071;3.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
深海铁锰结核作为世界上潜在的巨大金属宝库已成为当今开发海底矿藏的热点,因而深入了解铁锰结核成矿过程成为其开发利用的先决条件。研究发现多金属铁锰结核中的铁锰矿物不仅仅是由单纯的物理作用形成的,同时也包含了海洋生物驱动的生物矿化的过程。本文介绍了运用分子生物学、矿物学和地球化学等多学科的研究方法对大洋中铁锰的生物成矿过程和成矿特征的研究。深海铁锰结核的生长速率缓慢且其生长演化伴随着微生物群落的活动,因此结核的生长过程同时也记录着不同时期微生物群落结构的变化并生成了大量的微生物化石。在铁和锰的生物矿化过程中,细菌可以通过酶促反应氧化Fe(Ⅱ)和Mn(Ⅱ),同时可能伴随生物能量的生成,此外微生物还可以通过非酶促反应的方式促进Fe和Mn的富集沉淀。这些研究表明生物矿化作用在大洋铁锰结核成矿过程中有巨大贡献,对大洋铁锰结核的生物成因过程提供更加全面准确的理解,从而为今后进一步充实大洋铁锰结核的生物矿化理论及其开发利用提供依据。
关键词:  铁锰结核  生物矿化  微生物多样性  地质微生物
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200121002
分类号:P74
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41976202,41576064,41830593);“全球变化与海气相互作用”专项项目(GASI-GEOGE-04)
Advances in research on biological mineralization process of marine ferromanganese nodules
JIANG Ming-yu1,2, HU Yi-hao1,2,3, YU Xin-ke1,2, CAO Wen-rui1,2, SAREN Gao-wa1,2, CHANG Feng-ming1,2
1.CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Geology and Environment, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
As a potential huge metal treasury in the world, deep-sea ferromanganese nodules have become a hot spot in exploitation of seabed mineral resources nowadays. So a deep understanding of mineralization process is the precondition for development and utilization. It was found that the iron and manganese minerals in polymetallic nodules are not only formed by pure physical mineralization, but also include the biologically processes driven by microorganisms (biomineralization). Therefore in this paper, we introduce a multidisciplinary method including molecular biology, mineralogy and geochemistry to investigate the biological mineralization process and characteristic of ferromanganese mineral in marine polymetallic nodules. The growth rate of deep-sea ferromanganese nodules is very slow and its growth evolution is accompanied by the activities of microbial community. So in the process of the growth of ferromanganese nodules, the changes of microbial community structure are also recorded in different periods with the formation of many microfossils. In the biomineralization process of iron and manganese, bacteria can oxidize Fe and Mn through enzyme-catalyzed reaction with the possibility of biological energy generated at the same time. Furthermore, microbes can also promote the accumulation and precipitation of Fe and Mn through nonenzymatic reaction. These studies indicate that biomineralization has a great contribution to the mineralization of ferromanganese nodules, and provide a more comprehensive and accurate understanding of biogenetic process of deep-sea ferromanganese nodules. Therefore, it is supposed to provide the basis for supplementing the biomineralization theory and exploitation of ferromanganese nodules.
Key words:  ferromanganese nodules  biomineralization  microbial diversity  geomicrobiology
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