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引用本文:徐喆,刘进贤.历史DNA在鱼类群体遗传与进化研究中的应用[J].海洋科学,2020,44(8):39-47.
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历史DNA在鱼类群体遗传与进化研究中的应用
徐喆1,2,3,4, 刘进贤1,2,3
1.中国科学院 海洋研究所 海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266237;3.中国科学院 海洋大科学研究中心, 山东 青岛 266071;4.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
历史耳石、鳞片作为鱼类群体遗传与进化研究宝贵的DNA来源,记录了几十年甚至几百年间的遗传信息,使得鱼类群体遗传与进化研究可以扩展到历史时间尺度,从而可以直接反映人类活动对鱼类遗传多样性及适应性进化的影响。近十几年来,随着高通量测序技术的蓬勃发展,历史耳石、鳞片作为基因组数据的来源成为现实,可提供更为精细的遗传数据。然而,历史样本具有DNA高度降解、外源DNA污染等特点,利用历史DNA进行群体遗传学研究仍然是一项十分困难的工作。作者对历史耳石、鳞片样本DNA的提取方法,基因分型技术进行了总结,以期为克服这些困难提供思路。另外,作者综述了利用历史样本进行鱼类群体遗传与进化研究的现状与热点。伴随新一代分子技术的普及与发展,历史DNA可以提供更为丰富的遗传信息,将为鱼类群体遗传与进化相关研究提供新的思路与证据,未来势必拥有更广阔的应用前景。
关键词:  耳石  鳞片  历史DNA  群体遗传  进化
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200120001
分类号:Q-31
基金项目:青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室青年人才培育项目(LMEES-YTSP-2018-01-05)
Application of historical DNA in study of fish population ge-netics and evolution
XU Zhe1,2,3,4, LIU Jin-xian1,2,3
1.Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China;3.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;4.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
Historical otoliths and scales constitute a valuable source of genetic information in the form of the DNA record spanning decades and even centuries, which potentially enables extension of the temporal scale of genetic and evolutionary studies of fish populations. Thus, historical DNA could directly reflect the influence of human activities on genetic diversity and adaptive evolution of fish. In recent decades, with advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, historical otoliths and scales have been used as sources of genomic data, which provides extensive genetic data. Nevertheless, population genetic studies conducted on historical DNA remain a challenge. This is primarily due to the high level of DNA degradation and exogenous DNA contamination of historical DNA. Here, we review the DNA extraction protocols and genotyping technologies applied to historical otoliths and scales which could help researchers to plan their studies using historical specimens. In addition, we reviewed hot topics in fish population genetics and evolution with historical samples. Increasing accessibility to new technologies will provide researchers with more abundant genetic information from historical DNA. As an effective tool, historical DNA will provide new ideas and evidence for the study of fish population genetics and evolution, which will certainly have a broader application in the future.
Key words:  Otolith  scale  historical DNA  population genetics  evolution
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