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引用本文:宋金明,袁华茂,李学刚,段丽琴.胶州湾的生态环境演变与营养盐变化的关系[J].海洋科学,2020,44(8):106-117.
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胶州湾的生态环境演变与营养盐变化的关系
宋金明1,2,3,4, 袁华茂1,2,3,4, 李学刚1,2,3,4, 段丽琴1,2,3,4
1.中国科学院海洋研究所 中国科学院海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266237;3.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049;4.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心, 山东 青岛 266071
摘要:
作为我国人为影响海洋研究与海洋学基础研究的典型海域,胶州湾历经90年的科学调查和研究,获得了系统的对胶州湾海洋学的认识。本文总结归纳了近年来胶州湾的生态环境变化状况、营养物质输入以及百年来生态环境演变的主要结果和结论。近年来,胶州湾海水呈现“高氮-低磷-低硅富营养化”状况较明显,浮游生物生物量有增加的趋势,输入到胶州湾营养物质的量巨大,总溶解态氮的年输入通量为6 945.4 t/a,其中无机氮、有机氮分别为4 453.1 t/a,2 492.3 t/a。点源和河流是总溶解态氮的主要输入方式,分别占无机氮输入通量的39%和20%,有机氮输入通量的31%和41%。总溶解态磷的年输入通量为160.6 t/a,其中无机磷的输入略高于有机磷,二者分别为88.0 t/a,72.6 t/a。河流和点源是无机磷的主要输入方式,分别占无机磷输入通量的40%和30%,而对于有机磷而言,河流是其主要的输入方式,可占其输入通量的51%,而地下水和点源也分别占输入通量的24%和15%,这些大量输入的营养物质对胶州湾生态环境变化起了关键作用。胶州湾百年来经历了三个阶段的演变,20世纪70年代以前,胶州湾受人为影响很小,其化学要素水平基本呈现“背景值”且比较稳定,从20世纪80年代起,胶州湾明显受到人为活动的影响,其沉积物中的化学组分持续增加,直到20世纪90年代中到2000年达到高峰,2000年后,由于环保治理措施的加强,沉积物中的化学组分呈明显降低趋势,基本稳定在较低的水平。
关键词:  营养盐  生态环境变化  百年尺度  胶州湾
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200220001
分类号:P734
基金项目:山东省重大科技创新工程专项(2018SDKJ0504-1);中国科学院战略先导性专项(XDA23050501)
Ecological environment evolution and nutrient variations in Jiaozhou Bay
SONG Jin-ming1,2,3,4, YUAN Hua-mao1,2,3,4, LI Xue-gang1,2,3,4, DUAN Li-qin1,2,3,4
1.Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Function Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266237, China;3.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;4.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
Abstract:
As a typical sea area influenced by anthropogenic activities in China, 90 years of scientific investigations have been conducted in Jiaozhou Bay and a systematically oceanographic understanding have been obtained. The nutrients flux and environmental changes in recent years, and the environmental evolution process over the last century were summarized in this paper. In recent years, the increased plankton biomass and eutrophication with higher concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen but lower dissolved inorganic phosphorus and silicic acid were observed in Jiaozhou Bay. The annual influx of inorganic, organic and total dissolved nitrogen were 4453.1, 2 492.3 and 6 945.4 tons, respectively. Point and riverine input were the main ways for the total dissolved nitrogen, which account 39% and 33% for inorganic nitrogen, and 32% and 40% for organic form, respectively. The annual influx of inorganic phosphorus (88.0 tons) was little higher than that of organic form (72.6 tons). The point and riverine input were the main ways for inorganic phosphorus and riverine input was also the main way for organic form which account for 51% of total influx, followed by submarine groundwater discharge (24%) and point input (15%). The historical environmental changes in Jiaozhou Bay over the last century could be divided into three stages reflected by the variations of biogenic elements and trace elements in core sediments. Before 1970s, the chemical elements in sediments were with background level and showed little variation, which suggested that anthropogenic activities had little effects on the environment of Jiaozhou Bay. From 1980s to 2000s, the chemical elements increased continuously and reached the maximum level in 2000, which showed the significant influence of anthropogenic activities. After 2000s, the chemical elements in sediments decreased dramatically and maintained relative low level due to the enhancing environmental protection, which showed the improvement of the environment in Jiaozhou Bay.
Key words:  nutrient  ecological environment evolution  century scale  Jiaozhou Bay
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