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引用本文:李政,李文涛,杨晓龙,张彦浩,张沛东.威海荣成桑沟湾海域海草床分布现状及其生态特征[J].海洋科学,2020,44(10):52-59.
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威海荣成桑沟湾海域海草床分布现状及其生态特征
李政, 李文涛, 杨晓龙, 张彦浩, 张沛东
中国海洋大学海水养殖教育部重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266003
摘要:
海草床是生物圈最高产的生态系统之一,在氮捕获、碳封存、水质净化及维持生物多样性等方面发挥关键作用。2016年8月通过对威海荣成桑沟湾海域的现场调查,发现分布总面积约为471.72 ha的海草床,种类为鳗草(Zostera marina)、红纤维虾形草(Phyllospadix iwatensis)、日本鳗草(Zostera japonica)和丛生鳗草(Zostera caespitosa),分布面积分别为395.33 ha、37.28 ha、32.74 ha和6.37 ha。鳗草分布范围较广,平均茎枝密度817.0±27.6 shoots/m2,平均生物量646.6±41.8 g DW/m2;红纤维虾形草主要分布于桑沟湾北部养殖池和南部楮岛海域,平均茎枝密度2 649.0±29.8 shoots/m2,平均生物量2 381.3±27.3 g DW/m2;日本鳗草主要分布于桑沟湾西部八亩地海域,平均茎枝密度506.0±26.2 shoots/m2,平均生物量118.3±12.5 g DW/m2;丛生鳗草主要分布于桑沟湾南部楮岛海域,其平均密度为513.0±17.9 shoots/m2,平均生物量为479.1±28.1 g DW/m2。结合历史资料,发现桑沟湾海域海草床严重退化,分析了海草床的退化原因并提出了相应的建议和对策,以期为海草资源及滨海生境修复提供参考。
关键词:  海草床  种类  分布面积  生态特征  桑沟湾
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200108003
分类号:Q178.53
基金项目:国家科技基础性工作专项(2015FY110600);国家自然科学基金(41576112);中央高校基本科研业务费专项(201822021)
Distribution and ecological characteristics of seagrass beds in Rongcheng Sanggou Bay, Weihai
LI Zheng, LI Wen-tao, YANG Xiao-long, ZHANG Yan-hao, ZHANG Pei-dong
The Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003, China
Abstract:
Seagrass ecosystems have one of the highest primary productivity levels in the biosphere and play a key role in nitrogen capture, carbon sequestration, water purification, and maintenance of biodiversity. A field survey of Sanggou Bay in Rongcheng, Weihai in August 2016 revealed seagrass beds with a total distribution area of about 471.72 ha, with species including Zostera marina, Phyllospadix iwatensis, Zostera japonica, and Zostera caespitosa with distribution areas of 395.33, 37.28, 32.74, and 6.37 ha, respectively. Z. marina was found to be widely distributed, with an average shoot density and biomass of 817.0±27.6 shoots/m2 and 646.6±41.8 g DW/m2, respectively. P. iwatensis was found to be mainly distributed in the breeding pond in the north and on Chu Island in the south of Sanggou Bay, with an average shoot density and biomass of 2 649.0±29.8 shoots/m2 and 2 381.3±27.3 g DW/m2, respectively. Z. japonica was found to be mainly distributed in the Bamudi area, with an average shoot density and biomass of 506.0±26.2 shoots/m2 and 118.3±12.5 g DW/m2, respectively. Z. caespitosa was found to be mainly distributed on Chu Island, with an average shoot density and biomass of 513.0±17.9 shoots/m2 and 479.1±28.1 g DW/m2, respectively. The serious degradation of the seagrass resources in Sanggou Bay was evident by a comparison of the current and historical data. The possible causes of the degradation of the seagrass resources, corresponding suggestions, and countermeasures are put forward to provide a basis for the protection and restoration of the seagrass ecosystem and coastal habitats in this region.
Key words:  seagrass  species  distribution area  ecological characteristics  Sanggou Bay
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