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引用本文:刘香,茹小尚,张立斌.海洋微塑料污染的生物效应研究进展[J].海洋科学,2021,45(3):122-133.
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海洋微塑料污染的生物效应研究进展
刘香1,2,3,4,5, 茹小尚1,2,3,4, 张立斌1,2,3,4
1.中国科学院海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋生态与环境科学功能实验室, 山东 青岛 266237;3.中国科学院海洋大科学研究中心, 山东 青岛 266071;4.中国科学院海洋牧场工程实验室, 山东 青岛 266071;5.青岛科技大学环境与安全工程学院, 山东 青岛 266042
摘要:
微塑料是粒径小于5 mm的各类塑料碎片的总称。在环境领域中,微塑料污染已经成为人们的关注热点。近年来,海洋环境中微塑料污染日益严峻,其引发的生物与环境问题也备受关注。本文系统总结了海洋微塑料污染的生物效应研究进展,介绍了微塑料的定义、来源、分类、分布特征等研究现状,分析了微塑料对海洋环境中海水水质和沉积环境的影响,综述了微塑料对海洋生物的毒性效应,并基于研究进展提出了未来需关注的研究方向,以期为海洋微塑料对环境与生物的影响研究提供借鉴和参考。
关键词:  微塑料  海洋环境  生物积累  毒性效应
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200707001
分类号:X55
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2019YFD0902102)
Research progress on the biological effects of marine microplastic pollution
LIU Xiang1,2,3,4,5, RU Xiao-shang1,2,3,4, ZHANG Li-bin1,2,3,4
1.CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;2.Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology(Qingdao), Qingdao 266237, China;3.Center for Ocean Mega-Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;4.Laboratory of Marine Ranching Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China;5.School of Environment and Safety Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, China
Abstract:
Microplastics is a general term for all types of plastic fragments with particle size less than 5 mm. In the field of environment, microplastic pollution has become a trending topic. In recent years, microplastic pollution in the marine environment has become increasingly serious, and the biological and environmental problems caused by it have attracted much attention. This paper reviews the research progress on biological effects of marine microplastic pollution. The definition, source, classification, and distribution characteristics of microplastics have been introduced. The effects of microplastics on marine water quality and sedimentary environment have been analyzed. Furthermore, the toxic effects of microplastics on marine organisms have been summarized. Based on the research progress, the future research directions have been proposed. Our findings provide a reference for studying the impact of marine microplastics on environment and biology.
Key words:  microplastics  marine environment  bioaccumulation  toxic effects
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