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引用本文:王永旺,于瑞海,李春华,李海昆,刘洋.环境因子对小刀蛏稚贝生长和存活的影响[J].海洋科学,2022,46(10):43-50.
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环境因子对小刀蛏稚贝生长和存活的影响
王永旺1,2, 于瑞海1, 李春华1, 李海昆1, 刘洋2
1.中国海洋大学海水养殖教育部重点实验室, 山东 青岛 266003;2.青岛国信海洋牧场发展有限公司, 山东 青岛 266200
摘要:
采用单因子分析方法,以小刀蛏为材料,研究了不同盐度、温度、底质及饵料对小刀蛏稚贝生长和存活的影响。实验结果表明:小刀蛏稚贝具有较强的盐度耐受性,可以在较大的盐度变动范围内生长和存活;小刀蛏稚贝生长和存活的适宜盐度范围为15~35,最适盐度范围为20~25;适宜的温度范围为16~28℃,最适的温度范围为24~28℃;随着盐度和温度的增加,小刀蛏稚贝的生长率和存活率均呈先升高后降低的变化趋势。底质是小刀蛏生长和存活的必要环境条件,且小刀蛏对底质环境具有明显的选择性,稚贝以海泥底质最佳,实验条件下海泥底质组生长率和存活率显著高于半泥半砂底质和细粉砂底质。不同饵料对稚贝的培育效果不同,角毛藻和金藻的投喂效果最好,稚贝生长率和存活率最高,其次为扁藻组,小球藻组最差。研究结果可为小刀蛏人工培育技术的优化提供参考依据。
关键词:  小刀蛏  稚贝  环境因子  生长  存活
DOI:10.11759/hykx20210926003
分类号:S968.3
基金项目:山东省重点研发项目(2016GSF115013)
Effects of environmental factors on the survival and growth of juvenile Cultellus attenuatus
WANG Yong-wang1,2, YU Rui-hai1, LI Chun-hua1, LI Hai-kun1, LIU Yang2
1.The Key Laboratory of Mariculture(Ocean University of China), Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266003, China;2.Qingdao Conson Oceantec Valley Development Co., Ltd., Qingdao 266200, China
Abstract:
The effects of salinity, temperature, sediment, and microalgal diet on the survival and growth of juvenile Cultellus attenuatus were investigated to determine the optimum culture conditions. The results showed that juvenile C. attenuates had strong salinity tolerance, and it could grow and survive within a large salinity range. The suitable salinity for juvenile survival and growth ranged from 15 to 35, and the optimum salinity ranged from 20 to 25. Suitable temperatures ranged from 16℃ to 28℃, and the optimum temperature was 24℃~28℃; as salinity and temperature increased, the survival and growth rates increased and then decreased. The substrate composition affected the growth and survival of the juveniles. The results showed that the most suitable sediment was clay sediment and the survival and growth rates in the clay sediments were higher than that in the silt or sandy sediments. Different diets had different breeding effects on juveniles. The survival rate and daily rate of feeding Chaetoceros muelleri or Isochrysis galbana were significantly higher than feeding with Platymonas subcordiformis or Chlorella vulgaris. These results should be valuable to optimize artificial breeding for hatchery production of C. attenuates seed.
Key words:  Cultellus attenuates  juvenile  environmental factor  growth  survival
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