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引用本文:赵雯,车宗豪,刘括,马倩颖,刘泽,霍忠明,闫喜武.日本海神蛤(Panopea japonica)性腺发育生物学零度及有效积温研究[J].海洋科学,2022,46(10):78-84.
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日本海神蛤(Panopea japonica)性腺发育生物学零度及有效积温研究
赵雯1,2, 车宗豪1,2, 刘括1,2, 马倩颖1,2, 刘泽1,2, 霍忠明1,2, 闫喜武1,2
1.大连海洋大学水产与生命学院, 辽宁 大连 116023;2.辽宁省贝类良种繁育工程技术研究中心, 辽宁 大连 116023
摘要:
日本海神蛤(一种象拔蚌)为名贵贝类,近年来我国已逐渐发展成为日本海神蛤最大的消费市场,商业潜力较大。为探究日本海神蛤繁殖特性,于2019年1月至3月,以采自日本海海域的日本海神蛤为材料,在大连庄河市贝类育苗场,通过室内人工升温促熟方法,结合精卵排放观察和数理统计,求算日本海神蛤生物学零度及有效积温。结果显示,运用二点法、直线回归法和有效积温法求得日本海神蛤生物学零度分别为–0.87℃、–1.14℃、–0.90℃,有效积温分别为356.21℃·d、366.69℃·d、357.31℃·d。综合3种方法,求得日本海神蛤生物学零度及有效积温的平均值分别为(–0.97±0.14)℃和(360.07±5.76)℃·d。研究发现,与其他贝类相比,日本海神蛤性腺发育的生物学零度较低,这可能与日本海神蛤冷水生活的适应性及繁殖习性有关。在日本海神蛤室内人工苗种繁育过程中,结合日本海神蛤性腺发育的生物学零度和产卵的有效积温特点,通过调控生境水温,可以加快性腺发育速度,达到提早繁育效果。本研究为日本海神蛤在自然海域的苗情预测预报提供科学依据,对我国北黄海日本海神蛤养殖产业发展和资源修复具有重要的意义。
关键词:  日本海神蛤  性腺发育  人工促熟  生物学零度  有效积温
DOI:10.11759/hykx20210729001
分类号:S961.2
基金项目:国家重点研发计划蓝色粮仓科技创新项目(2019YFD0900704,2018YFD090140);现代农业产业技术体系专项资金资助(CARS-49);辽宁省“兴辽英才计划项目”(XLYC1807271);大连市高层次人才创新支持计划项目(杰出青年科技人才;2021RJ09)
Biological zero degree and effective accumulated temperature of the geoduck clam Panopea japonica
ZHAO Wen1,2, CHE Zong-hao1,2, LIU Kuo1,2, MA Qian-ying1,2, LIU Ze1,2, HUO Zhong-ming1,2, YAN Xi-wu1,2
1.College of Fisheries and Life Science, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, China;2.Engineering Research Center of Shellfish Culture and Breeding in Liaoning Province, Dalian 116023, China
Abstract:
The geoduck clam (Panopea japonica) is a kind of precious shellfish that holds high commercial potential. In recent years, China has rapidly developed to be the largest market for geoduck clams. To explore the reproductive character of P. Japonica, the biological zero degree and effective accumulated temperature of P. japonica (collected from the Sea of Japan) were studied by the methods of gonad maturity promotion with indoor artificial elevated temperature, spawning observation, and mathematical statistics in Zhuanghe, Dalian, China, from January to March 2019. The results demonstrated that the biological zero degree of gonadal reproduction of P. japonica was -0.87 ℃, -1.14 ℃, -0.90 ℃, and the effective accumulated temperature was 356.21 ℃·d, 366.69 ℃·d, 357.31 ℃·d, respectively, when calculated using the two-point method, linear regression method, and effective accumulated temperature method. To summarize, the mean values of biological zero degree and effective accumulated temperature were (-0.97±0.14) ℃ and (360.07±5.76) ℃·d. The results illustrated that the biological zero degree of gonadal development was lower in geoduck clams than any other shellfish due to the living ability and reproduction characteristics of geoduck clams in cold water. The study found that spawning periods can be accelerated in the process of artificial breeding by adjusting the seawater temperature according to the character of the biological zero degree and effective accumulated temperature of gonadal development; meanwhile, the study also provided the scientific basis for the seeds forecast of geoduck clams in natural seawater environments. The findings make critical contributions to the aquaculture industry and resource restoration in the North Yellow Sea of China.
Key words:  Panopea japonica  gonadal development  artificial promoting maturity  biological zero degree  effective accumulated temperature
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