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引用本文:李青生,王翠,蒋金龙,黄金良,吴耀建.九龙江口表层沉积物重金属的污染特征与来源分析[J].海洋科学,2020,44(12):32-43.
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九龙江口表层沉积物重金属的污染特征与来源分析
李青生1,2, 王翠1,2, 蒋金龙1,2, 黄金良3, 吴耀建1,2
1.自然资源部 第三海洋研究所, 福建 厦门 361005;2.自然资源部 第三海洋研究所, 福建省海洋生态保护与修复重点实验室, 福建 厦门 361005;3.厦门大学 福建省海岸带污染防控重点实验室, 福建 厦门 361102
摘要:
为了解九龙江口表层沉积物重金属的污染特征,作者于2013年9月在九龙江口进行了表层沉积物采样调查分析,结果表明:沉积物中Cu、Pb、Zn和Cd的空间分布较为相似,高值区均分布在南溪入海口和海门岛下游海域,Cr含量的高值区也分布在南溪入海口附近。聚类分析将采样点位分为4类:第一类主要分布在河口区外侧,沉积物中油类含量较高;第二类主要分布在南溪出海口,硫化物、Zn和Cr的含量较高;第三类分布在河口区中北部,污染物含量处于中等水平;第四类主要分布在海门岛下游海域,硫化物、TOC、Cu、Pb和Zn含量较高。地质累积系数评价显示:Hg、Cu、Pb、Zn、Cr、As处于未污染到轻度污染水平,Cd为轻度污染到重度污染水平;Zn、Cr、Cd的Igeo指数相对较高,第二类和第四类站位的Igeo指数相对较高。相关分析表明,硫化物与Cu、Zn、Cd正相关性较高,Cu与Zn、Cd、Cr正相关性较高,Pb与Zn、Cd正相关性较高,Zn与Cd、Cr正相关性较高。主成分分析表明,河口沉积物重金属主要有以下几个可能来源:流域和河口的工农业活动和采矿活动、流域水土流失、流域自然风化。针对河口沉积物重金属污染,流域-河口污染控制与生态修复需采取以下措施:工业污染的控制、农业污染控制、养殖污染的控制、植树造林与河岸带绿化和矿山生态恢复。
关键词:  重金属  表层沉积物  污染特征  来源分析  九龙江口
DOI:10.11759/hykx20200219001
分类号:X55
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(41406121);自然资源部第三海洋研究所基本科研业务专项(海三科2012020)
Pollution characteristics and source apportionment of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the Jiulong River Estuary
LI Qing-sheng1,2, WANG Cui1,2, JIANG Jin-long1,2, HUANG Jin-liang3, WU Yao-jian1,2
1.Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen 361005, China;2.Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecological Conservation and Restoration, Xiamen 361005, China;3.Xiamen University, Fujian Key Laboratory of Coastal Pollution Prevention and Control, Xiamen 361102, China
Abstract:
In September 2013, we conducted a surface sediment sampling survey in the Jiulong River Estuary to explore the pollution characteristics and sources of heavy metals in the surface sediments. The results showed that the spatial distribution of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd in sediment was similar. The high-value areas were distributed in the Nanxi Estuary and the lower reaches of Haimen Island. The high-value areas of Cr were distributed near the Nanxi Estuary. We divided the sampling points into four categories based on the hierarchical clustering analysis. The first category was distributed outside the estuary area with higher oil content in the sediment. The second category was mainly distributed in the Nanxi Estuary with higher sulfide, Zn, and Cr contents. The third category was distributed in the middle and northern parts of the Jiulong River Estuary, with medium content of pollutants. The fourth category was mainly distributed in the downstream of Haimen Island with high sulfide, total organic carbon, Cu, Pb, and Zn contents. The geoaccumulation index showed that Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and As were at unpolluted to moderately unpolluted levels, whereas Cd was at a moderate to strongly polluted level. The Igeo indices of Zn, Cr, and Cd along with the Igeo indices of the second and fourth categories of stations were relatively higher. The correlation analysis showed that sulfide has a positive correlation with Cu, Zn, and Cd. Cu has a positive correlation with Zn, Cd, and Cr. Pb has a positive correlation with Zn and Cd. Zn has a positive correlation with Cd and Cr. The principal component analysis showed that there are three possible pollution sources of heavy metals in the surface sediments:industrial, agricultural, and mining activities in the river basin; soil erosion; and natural weathering. The following measures are needed and recommended for pollution control and ecological restoration:industrial pollution control, agricultural pollution control, aquaculture pollution control, afforestation and riparian greening, and mine ecological restoration.
Key words:  heavy metal  surface sediment  pollution characteristics  source apportionment  Jiulong River Estuary
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